What is Glucuronidation reaction?

Glucuronidation is a conjugation reaction whereby glucuronic acid, derived from cofactor UDP-glucuronic acid, is covalently linked to a substrate containing a nucleophilic functional group. The resultant metabolite, called a glucuronide, is usually excreted in bile and urine.

What does β-glucuronidase do?

β-glucuronidase (β-G) is an enzyme that breaks the tight bond between glucuronic acid and toxins in the intestines. The liver and intestine bind toxins, steroid hormones and some dietary components to glucuronic acid.

What is beta-glucuronidase E coli?

The β-glucuronidase (beta D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase; EC 3.2. 1.31) enzyme belongs to the family-2 glycosyl hydrolase. The E. coli borne β-glucuronidase gene (uidA) was devised as a gene fusion marker in plant genetic transformation experiments.

What does a glucuronide do?

Glucuronidation is a major mechanism for the formation of water-soluble substrates from xenobiotics, leading to their elimination from the body in bile or urine.

What is glucuronidation and sulfation?

Sulfation and glucuronidation are the principal metabolic pathways of flavonoids, and extensive phase II metabolism is the main reason for their poor bioavailabilities.

How do you support glucuronidation?

Supporting Glucuronidation:

  1. Citrus Fruits: limonene from the peels of oranges, lemons, limes, and grapefruit and believed to induce UGT activity.
  2. Cruciferous vegetables.
  3. Dandelion, rooibos, honeybush, and rosemary tea.
  4. Astaxanthin found in algae, yeast, trout, krill, shrimp, and crayfish.

What causes low beta-glucuronidase?

Low b-glucuronidase activity is an indicator of abnormal metabolic activity among the intestinal microbiota that may be influenced by dietary extremes, diminished abundance and diversity of the intestinal microbiota, or heavy probiotic and/or prebiotic supplementation.

What is beta-glucuronidase positive E coli?

Bacteria that grow in TBX agar at 44°C with a positive ß-glucuronidase reaction (blue colonies) are considered to be E. coli. Each batch of tests should include a positive and negative control.

What is glucuronidase activity?

Human β-glucuronidase is a type of glucuronidase (a member of glycosidase Family 2) that catalyzes hydrolysis of β-D-glucuronic acid residues from the non-reducing end of mucopolysaccharides (also referred to as glycosaminoglycans) such as heparan sulfate. Human β-glucuronidase is located in the lysosome.

How do you support glucuronidation pathway?

What is the principle behind glucuronide activity?

The conjugation of a compound with glucuronic acid results in the production of a strongly acidic derivative that is more water-soluble at physiologic pH than the parent compound. This reduces its transfer across membranes, facilitates its dissociation from the receptor, and enhances its elimination in urine or bile.