What is the treatment for parakeratosis?
Isotretinoin [45, 46] and tretinoin have been reported as effective for granular parakeratosis. Calcipotriene has been used to treat granular parakeratosis. Additional vitamin D-3 analogs, such as maxacalcitol, have been used effectively for treatment.
Can parakeratosis be cured?
Patients should be educated that granular parakeratosis is benign and often self-resolves. Patients should also be instructed that granular parakeratosis is inconsistently responsive to various treatments, and there is no cure for granular parakeratosis.
What does focal parakeratosis mean?
Parakeratosis is a term used to describe the presence of a nucleus within a specialized skin cell called a keratinocyte. Skin is made up of several different layers of cells. The abnormal keratinocytes in parakeratosis are found in the outermost layer of the skin called the stratum corneum.
What causes focal parakeratosis?
Parakeratosis most often is caused by consumption of excessive calcium. Affected pigs show few signs of illness other than skin lesions and reduced growth rate. Initial lesions appear as reddened macules and papules on the ventrolateral abdomen and medial surface of the thighs; these lesions often go unobserved.
What is parakeratosis in a Pap smear?
On Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, hyperkeratosis is characterized by anucleated squamous cells, which may be single or in sheets, and parakeratosis is typically seen as small superficial squamous cells with small, pyknotic, and hyperchromatic nuclei.
What is axillary granular parakeratosis?
The term axillary granular parakeratosis is proposed for a unique axillary eruption with distinct histopathologic features. Four middle-aged to elderly patients (three women, one man) had unilateral or bilateral, usually pruritic, hyperpigmented to bright red patches in the axillae.
What is the significance of parakeratosis?
Our overall finding is that parakeratosis in an otherwise negative Pap smear supports a follow-up HPV DNA test. In conclusion, the presence of parakeratosis without definitive evidence of HPV infection supports closer follow-up, and may be indicative of HPV infection.
Is parakeratosis a psoriasis?
Abstract. Parakeratosis refers to incomplete maturation of epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in abnormal retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum. It occurs in many diseases of the skin, particularly in psoriasis.
What causes parakeratosis in cervix?
Hyperkeratosis is a finding of dried skin cells on your Pap smear. This change in the cells of the cervix often occurs from cervical cap or diaphragm use or from infection.
Is HPV a parakeratosis?
Results: A positive HPV result was more frequently identified in cases with parakeratosis than in cases without parakeratosis (P < 0.001). A histological diagnosis of HSIL was more frequently observed in HPV-positive cases with a diagnosis of parakeratosis on cytology than in cases without parakeratosis (P = 0.8).