Which part of the flow-volume loop is abnormal in variable extrathoracic obstruction?

Fixed Upper Airway Obstruction As a result, a variable extrathoracic obstruction primarily affects the inspiratory portion of the flow volume loop, viewed as a flattening of the usual deep inspiratory curve. The expiratory portion of the loop appears relatively normal.

What is variable extrathoracic obstruction?

Variable intrathoracic obstruction may be caused by tracheomalacia, polychondritis, and tumors of the lower trachea or main bronchus. Variable extrathoracic obstruction may be caused by bilateral and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, vocal cord constriction, reduced pharyngeal cross-sectional area, and airway burns.

What is variable airway obstruction?

A variable extrathoracic obstruction limits inspiratory flow when atmospheric pressure exceeds airway pressure. A variable intrathoracic obstruction limits expiratory flow when pleural pressure exceeds airway pressure.

What does a flow-volume loop tell you?

) displays airflow (in L/second) as it relates to lung volume (in L) during maximal inspiration from complete exhalation (residual volume [RV]) and during maximum expiration from complete inhalation (TLC).

What is Extrathoracic airflow obstruction?

Intrathoracic obstruction is most severe during expiration and is relieved during inspiration. Extrathoracic obstruction is increased during inspiration because of the effect of atmospheric pressure to compress the trachea below the site of obstruction.

What is the extrathoracic airway?

Part of the respiratory tract consisting of (1) the anterior nasal passage, and (2) the posterior nasal passage, pharynx and larynx, designated as the ET1 region and ET2 region, respectively, of the Human respiratory tract model as defined in ICRP Publication 130.

What are flow loops?

The flow-volume loop is a plot of inspiratory and expiratory flow (on the Y-axis) against volume (on the X-axis) during the performance of maximally forced inspiratory and expiratory maneuvers. Changes in the contour of the loop can aid in the diagnosis and localization of airway obstruction [1].

How is upper airway obstruction diagnosed?

The accepted standard tests for diagnosing upper-airway obstruction were bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, and chest or neck computed tomogram.

What happens when airway is blocked?

A blockage in your airway could prevent your body from getting enough oxygen. A lack of oxygen can cause brain damage, and even a heart attack, in a matter of minutes. Any obstruction of the upper airway has the potential to be life-threatening.

Is the trachea Extrathoracic?

Trachea. The trachea is a cartilaginous and fibromuscular tube that extends from the inferior aspect of the cricoid cartilage (sixth cervical vertebra level) to the main carina (fifth thoracic vertebra level). Its length is 3 cm at birth and 10-12 cm in adults (of which 2-4 cm is extrathoracic and 6-9 cm intrathoracic) …

What can you do for tracheal stenosis?

Common surgical options for tracheal stenosis include:

  1. Tracheal resection and reconstruction. During a tracheal resection, your surgeon removes the constricted section of your windpipe and rejoins the ends.
  2. Tracheal laser surgery.
  3. Tracheal dilation.
  4. Tracheobronchial airway stent.